Digestion notes

Circular, longitudinal and oblique muscles distort and distent the stomach in regular waves of contraction to mix the chyme.

As the food is swallowed it passes over the epiglottis which covers the opening of the respiratory system and prevents food entering it. The mucosa of stomach has gastric glands. The faeces is stored in the rectum until it is excreted through the anal canal.

Therefore, absorption is followed by assimilation. In addition the villi also have their own projections which are called microvilli. Exocrine secretions of pancreas The Pancreas secretes bicarbonate buffer into the duodenum from duct cells leading fromsecretory units called acini.

It is carried out by passive, active or facilitated transport mechanisms. This process is called assimilation.

Protein channels and pumps are present in the microvilli for rapid absorption. This is composed of two discrete layers: Anus -muscular sphincter which controls the exit of waste Functions β€”re-absorbs water and passes along material that was not digested; contains intestinal flora bacteria to break down cellulose, also produce intestinal gas Mass movements β€” large portions of the colon contract to move material through it, usually after eating defecation Digestion releases its constituents: Carboxypeptidase and another brush border enzyme aminopeptidase are endopeptidases.

The enteric nervous system integrates the motility throughout the GI tract examples: Breaking down of complex organic food materials into simpler, smaller soluble molecules.

The nerves in this layer help coordinate peristalsis and absorption. The many microvilli increase the surface area for absorption further. The oesophagus has circular muscles in the wall. Receives enzymes from the pancreas. These cells can be arranged in a single layer as seen in the esophagus, or in multiple layers as seen in the stomach and intestine.

Chylomicrons are transported across the basolateral membrane into the interstitial fluid. The mucosa consists of specialized cells known as epithelial cells. When bacteria enters the gut and gets past the mucosal barrier into the submucosa, the cells in the lymphatic tissue will identify the foreign substance and attack and destroy the bacteria, thereby preventing the spread of infection.

LDLs are thought to cause artherosclerotic plaques, cholesterol rich deposits in blood vessels. Enterokinase produced by small intestine located in the duodenum brush border activates trypsinogen. The abnormal frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid faecal matter from the bowel. Mouth - Saliva contains amylase and lingual lipase, that begins the breakdown of carbohydrates and lipids.

Stomach Secretion of pepsinogen from chief cells in stomach lining and hydrochloric acid from parietal cells. Anal sphincter under autonomic and somatic nervous control.

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide Glucose, lipids, acid and distension in the duodenum also stimulate release of Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, GIP, an enterogastrone that inhibits gastric secretion and motility. The gall bladder secretes bile to emulsify fats.

A substance which on taken and digested in the body provides mate- rials for growth, repair, energy, reproduction, resistance from disease or regulation of body processes. If antibiotics are taken, bacteria are killed and less hormone reabsorbed; hence antibiotics can reduce the effectiveness of birth control pill.

Bile from the liver via the gall bladder emulsifies the lipids and increases surface area for action by lipases in the small intestine. Carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides, proteins are broken down into amino acids, and fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.

Peristalsis movement of alimentary canal also helps in swallowing. Micelles are transported across the brush border into the cells of the intestinal epithelium, i. Digestion is the process of gradual break down of foods that we eat in a soluble form suitable for absorption.

For example, meat, even when cooked, is chemically too complex to be absorbed from the alimentary maxiwebagadir.com, it first digested before absorption.

The function of the digestive system is digestion and absorption. Digestion is the breakdown of food into small molecules, which are then absorbed into the body. The digestive system is divided into two major parts: The digestive tract (alimentary canal) is a continuous tube with two openings: the.

A summary of Anatomy in 's Digestion.

Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption

Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Digestion and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as. Human Anatomy & Physiology: Digestive System; Ziser Lecture Notes, 1 The Digestive System We need food for cellular utilization:!nutrients as building blocks for synthesis!sugars, etc to break down for energy most food that we eat cannot be directly used by the.

Human Digestive System This is a complex process. The breakdown of the nutrients requires the coordination of several enzymes secreted from specialized cells within the mouth, stomach, intestines, and liver.

Human Digestive System

Introduction to Nutrition and Digestion The cells metabolize these raw materials and synthesize structural components, enzymes, energy-rich compounds, and other biologically important substances. All the elements and compounds taken into a living thing are nutrients.

Digestion notes
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Human Digestive System